Yesterday, LC-39A moved into a new chapter by launching a Falcon 9, but it’s just the latest of many chapters. Originally constructed in the 1960s for the giant Saturn V rocket, and consequently one of the biggest and toughest pads in the world, it has hosted four different rockets in its history (five if you count a different configuration of Saturn V). I thought I’d share clips of each of them taking off. 😉
Here’s the first launch from LC-39A, of the uncrewed Apollo 4 test flight:
The pad would host many more Apollo launches, including Apollo 11. After the Apollo mission was over, NASA got funding to expend the surplus hardware mounting the Skylab program. The last launch of a Saturn V came from LC-39A and placed the Skylab space station into orbit, easily the most massive single payload of any mission in history:
Following this, the crewed missions to Skylab were launched using the much smaller Saturn 1B (itself an impressive rocket, but most things look small next to Saturn V). However, the pad originally used for Saturn 1B Apollo flights out of Cape Canaveral Air Station was no longer configured for it, so NASA modified one of the Mobile Launchers to basically adapt Saturn 1B to a Saturn V launch tower — by adding a structure nicknamed “the milkstool”. Here’s the final Apollo mission, for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project in 1975.
After that, LC-39A would not see another flight for nearly six years. During that time, it received substantial modifications for the Space Shuttle program. The Mobile Launchers were stripped of their towers, in favor of a Fixed Service Structure that would remain permanently at the pad. The Apollo-era Mobile Service Structure, which normally sat parked about a mile from the pad, was scrapped as well, in favor of a Rotating Service Structure that would sit attached to the FSS at the pad. And in April of 1981, the Space Shuttle Columbia baptized the modified pad with her own fire (notice the white External Tank, and Columbia’s distinctive black chines):
And then, thirty years later, the Shuttle era came to an end with the final flight of Atlantis, also from LC-39A:
After that mission, LC-39A was mothballed. 39B was earmarked for the Space Launch System, the next monster rocket, and has been converted back to a “clean pad” configuration, a la Apollo. But 39A had no immediate mission and was offered up to civilian use. It took a while, but eventually SpaceX made a case for adapting it to the massive Falcon Heavy rocket. SpaceX has left much of the original Shuttle-era hardware present, including the FSS and RSS (although both were long since stripped of salvageable and historic gear by NASA); I’m not sure whether they plan to keep them all there. Their eventual crew-access arm could be added to the FSS, but the RSS has little value for them. But in the meantime, it is good to see the pad back in use, and slightly quicker this time. 😉